Equivalence Partitioning Definition The meaning of Equivalence Partitioning

febrero 11, 2021 6:20 pm Published by Leave your thoughts

Software testing techniques are a set of practices that aid in the improvement of the overall quality and effectiveness of any software development project. To increase the efficacy of the tests, many testing methodologies are used as part of the testing process. The overall idea in this section is that given an equivalence relation on set \(A\), the collection of equivalence classes forms a partition of set \(A,\) (Theorem 6.3.3).

definition of equivalence partitioning

If percentage entered is between 50 to 90 %, then equivalence partitioning method will show valid percentage. When using this technique, you can test both equivalence classes and partitions. How you handle equivalence classes depends mainly on the requirements of your project.

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It helps you create fewer test cases by ensuring that each logical input subset is tested in one test case. It reduces the number of conditions your tests need to handle, while still exercising all code paths that are used for inputs inside a partition. For each of the following relations \(\sim\) on \(\mathbb\times\mathbb\), https://globalcloudteam.com/ determine whether it is an equivalence relation. For those that are, describe geometrically the equivalence class \([]\). Which means that the equivalence classes \(\), where \(x\in\), form a partition of \(\mathbb\). Notice an equivalence class is a set, so a collection of equivalence classes is a collection of sets.

If you dig deeper, you will realize that we are testing the application as a black box. Therefore, our ability to create partition definition of equivalence partitioning limits to what is called out in requirements. We have no understanding of designs and what the developer would have coded.

We can measure the Equivalence partitioning test coverage as the number of partitions tested by at-least one value divided by the total number of recognized partitions. These five conditions will cover all the requirements that we have for the age field. Of course, you can use any other values from each partition as you like. If you create a test suite for each partition, then there is no need to identify test cases for age 18 from partitions other than the one on which the class was created. Test design is not effective if you do not first determine what the significant differences are in your input domain. This can be done by reviewing the requirements, existing test cases, and any design specifications that relate to variables with significant differences.

O que é Equivalence Partitioning (EP)?

A text field supports only numeric characters and their length should be 6 to 10 characters long. For this condition, there can be three partitions or classes which can be created. The first partition where numeric values are present having a length between 6 to 10.

definition of equivalence partitioning

Answer Two sets will be related by \(\sim\) if they have the same number of elements. Also, when we specify just one set, such as \(a\sim b\) is a relation on set \(B\), that means the domain & codomain are both set \(B\). Let us consider a set of products with product IDs and users wants to search for Mobiles. In Equivalence Partitioning, first, you divide a set of test condition into a partition that can be considered. Any Number greater than 10 entered in the Order Pizza field is considered invalid.

Their relationship is direct and is not mediated by other variables. These are like the primary key of a database record that relates it to other records in its table. Identify equivalence classes of each variable in the input domain. Confirm that \(S\) is an equivalence relation by studying its ordered pairs. Now we have \(x R b\mbox bRa,\) thus \(xRa\) by transitivity.

Definition of equivalence class partitioning words

If \(R\) is an equivalence relation on any non-empty set \(A\), then the distinct set of equivalence classes of \(R\) forms a partition of \(A\). Equivalence partitioning takes advantage of the properties of equivalence partitions or similarities/equivalences to reduce the number of test cases . This technique helps testers identify the optimal number of test cases – ensuring test cases are not missed or randomly repeated. A formal method must be created to specify equivalence classes and their boundaries.

  • Below is a collection of both valid and invalid test scenarios.
  • Each value that you take should belong to only one partition.
  • Here, only equivalence classes are considered in which the input changes significantly from one member to another.
  • Thus combining two invalid partitions or negative values, we end up masking the actual root cause.
  • Do not be fooled by the representatives, and consider two apparently different equivalence classes to be distinct when in reality they may be identical.
  • This method increases the overall coverage of testing and ensures that black box testing is done in an effortless and efficient manner.

This kind of testing is used to break down a huge number of test cases into smaller, more manageable portions. 10 is the boundary value – Acceptance by the system is required. 9 is the boundary value – Acceptance by the system is required. 2 is the boundary value – Acceptance by the system is required. 1 is the boundary value – Acceptance by the system is required.


Instead of testing one value for each partition in our previous equivalency partitioning example, you will check the values at the partitions like 0, 1, 10, 11, and so on. You test values at both valid and invalid limits, as you can see. This form of testing is fully based on software specifications and needs.

definition of equivalence partitioning

Then we pick only one value from each partition for testing. The hypothesis behind this technique is that if one condition/value in a partition passes all others will also pass. Likewise, if one condition in a partition fails, all other conditions in that partition will fail. The technique of testing between extreme ends or borders between divisions of input data is known as boundary testing. Software testing, which may be done manually or automatically, is essential for a bug-free program.

Que es Equivalence Partitioning (EP)?

The same goes for any value less than 16 and values greater than 60. As such, we only test 1 condition within each partition and assume that if it works/doesn’t work, the rest of the condition will behave the same way. Invalid Partitions are values that should be rejected by the component or system under test. Method of Practice − Divide the range of values into comparable portions for all of the valid values while also ensuring that two incorrect values are tested.

The values of the test vector at the strict condition of the equality that is and are called the boundary values, Boundary-value analysis has detailed information about it . On the basis of the code, the input vectors of are partitioned. The blocks we need to cover are the overflow statement and the underflow statement and neither of these 2. That gives rise to 3 equivalent classes, from the code review itself. The divided sets are called Equivalence Partitions or Equivalence Classes.

Equivalence Partitioning Method is also known as Equivalence class partitioning . It is a software testing technique or black-box testing that divides input domain into classes of data, and with the help of these classes of data, test cases can be derived. An ideal test case identifies class of error that might require many arbitrary test cases to be executed before general error is observed. An additional effect of applying this technique is that you also find the so called “dirty” test cases. An inexperienced tester may be tempted to use as test cases the input data 1 to 12 for the month and forget to select some out of the invalid partitions.

The first invalid partition would be ≤ 0 and the second invalid partition would be ≥ 13. Equivalence partitioning is typically applied to the inputs of a tested component, but may be applied to the outputs in rare cases. The equivalence partitions are usually derived from the requirements specification for input attributes that influence the processing of the test object. The success of Equivalence partitioning is dependent on our ability to create correct partitions.

In this technique, the data or test cases are partitioned or divided first to form data sets called equivalence classes or partitions. If it works properly, then it can be concluded that others in the group would also work properly with the software. However, if it does not work, then the whole group can be ignored, as it can be concluded that other cases would not work as well.

Equivalence Partitioning Testing Technique

You might want to analyze the code for each class individually or create test cases that check combinations of individual tests. In other words, each partition is a collection of inputs with the same value for one variable and different values for some other variable. If the range condition is given as an input, then one valid and two invalid equivalence classes are defined. In our earlier equivalence partitioning example, instead of checking one value for each partition, you will check the values at the partitions like 0, 1, 10, 11 and so on. As you may observe, you test values at both valid and invalid boundaries. If \(R\) is an equivalence relation on the set \(A\), its equivalence classes form a partition of \(A\).

Boundary Value Analysis and Equivalence Partitioning Testing

The techniques you use to identify strictly related variables greatly depend on how your program is organized and developed. The major limitation is that Partitioning can help reduce the number of test cases only if a formal method for partitioning has been defined. The relation \(R\) determines the membership in each equivalence class, and every element in the equivalence class can be used to represent that equivalence class. If \(x \in A_1 \cup A_2 \cup A_3 \cup …,\) then \(x\) belongs to at least one equivalence class, \(A_i\) by definition of union. A relation on a set \(A\) is an equivalence relation if it is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive.

equivalence partitioning definition, equivalence partitioning meaning

We often use the tilde notation \(a\sim b\) to denote a relation. An advantage of this approach is it reduces the time required for performing testing of a software due to less number of test cases. The test case should have all valid inputs for this partition. If any other alphabet is chosen between these 26 alphabets the output will give us the same results.

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